This is done to develop the high temperature


When china machine screw dry, wet this tree in the primary backup ceramic slurry.5. Stucco with slightly coarser sand and dry under same conditions.

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MOULD OR SHELL BUILDINGThis is the process where the ceramic shell is built around the wax trees / assemblies. The most economical and popular process is the dip process. This process is extremely versatile and offers very accurate control of the shell properties. 

The dip process; The wax tree is invested with ceramic coatings, layer by layer, until a sufficiently thick mould is formed. The wax tree is first dipped in ceramic slurry and dry sand is sprinkled (lsquo; stuccoed lsquo;) on it. A number of such coats (slurry plus sand) are applied until the desired thickness is achieved. The dipping procedure;The step by step shell building procedure is as follows1. Dip the wax tree into the primary ceramic slurry.2. Stucco with fine sand.3. Dry this coat in controlled conditions of temperature and humidity.

 When china machine screw dry, wet this tree in the primary backup ceramic slurry.5. Stucco with slightly coarser sand and dry under same conditions.6. Repeat this procedure using progressively coarser sands until the required thickness is reached.7. When a particular coarseness of stucco sand is reached, secondary backup slurry is used.8. The number of dips varies from 8 to 12 depending on the size and shape of the casting.

Properties of Shell / Mould materials:(a) The material should have refractory properties.(b) It should be thermally stable i.e. dimension changes on heating should be minimal.(c) Chemical compatibility with other mould materials and metal to be cast is important.(d) It should resist hot deformation, i.e. the material should not become soft, at molten metal temperatures, and deform.(e) Low cost and easy availability of consistent quality material is also important.Some of the ceramic materials used are(a) Silica (SiO2)(b) Zircon (ZrSiO2)(c) Zirconia (ZrO2) etchellip;.SHELL DEWAXING:Dewaxing is the process where the wax patterns are melted out. This leaves behind the monolithic ceramic shell having cavities of the exact shape and dimensions of the wax patterns. This is also the most delicate step in the entire investment casting process.

The dewaxing methods:1. Flash heating: the shells are placed in a furnace that is preheated to a high temperature. This sudden exposure to heat enables proper dewaxing of the shells.2. Steam autoclave dewaxing: here the shells are placed in a steam autoclave. The vessel is closed and super heated steam, at high pressure, is let into it. This causes very efficient dewaxing. Steam dewaxing is the most efficient method of dewaxing as almost no shell cracking is noticed here.3. Boiling water/wax dewaxing: the shells are simply immersed into a bath of boiling water or wax.The wax inside the shells is thus melted out. There are a number of disadvantages associated with this method. The only advantage being the low capital investment involved.

SHELL PRE-HEATINGThe shell after dewaxing is preheated. This is done to develop the high temperature bond of the shell. The preheating is usually done in a box type electrical furnace or in a directly fired oil / gas furnace. It may be noted that the shells are poured when still hot. This is done to prevent thermal shock and minimise casting defects.METAL CASTINGThere is no limitation to what metal can be cast in the investment casting process. Components in non-ferrous metals are cast regularly along with regular steel, stainless steel, cast iron, etchellip;. Components in titanium alloys are also investment cast. Gold ornaments are also investment cast forming an independent industry on its own. Hence, metal or metallurgy is no limitation here. Conventional casting methods like, ladle pouring or furnace pouring, are used for casting metal into the investment casting shells. Vacuum melting-casting techniques are used only where metallurgy specifications require such care. The gravity pouring method is found to be adequate for all other casting needs.

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